Hyperplasia (or "hypergenesis") is a general term for an abnormal increase in the amount of the cells of an organ or tissue causing it to increase in size. It may be due by any number of causes including (but not limited to) chronic inflammatory response, hormonal dysfunctions, or neoplasia.
Some of the more commonly-known forms of hyperplasia, or conditions leading to hyperplasia, are:
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The Adrenal Hyperplasia Network (http://www.ahn.org.uk) provides an overview of this disease.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome. The amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea associated with this syndrome results in hyperplasia of the endometrium, or inner lining of the uterus. If left untreated, this can lead to endometrial cancer.
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia, also known as prostate enlargement. (For more information, refer to Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/prostateenlargement))
of the breast. Types
of breast hyperplasia
- benign ductal or lobular hyperplasia - increased growth in size and/or number of cells in breast ducts or lobes, but generally does not indicate an increased risk of breast cancer
- atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia - increased growth in size and/or number of cells in breast ducts or lobes that develops in an unusual pattern, and can indicate an increased risk of breast cancer. A regular follow-up program is recommended.
- lobular carcinoma in situ, or LCIS - a form of atypical lobular hyperplasia where the cell changes in the lobes are very unusual. It presents a risk of breast cancer in the future. A regular follow-up program is highly recommended; also, a specialist may wish to discuss the option of surgery with a woman having this form of breast hyperplasia.
- Focal epithelial hyperplasia (also known as Heck's disease). This is a wart-like growth in the mucous tissues of the mouth or, rarely, throat that is caused by certain sub-types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Heck's disease has not been known to cause cancer. (For more information, refer to Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (http://www.maxillofacialcenter.com/BondBook/mucosa/feh.html) at the Maxillo Facial Center)
- Sebaceous hyperplasia - a condition where small yellowish growths develop on the skin, usually on the face. This condition is neither contagious nor dangerous. (For more information, refer to Sebaceous Hyperplasia and Fordyce's Condition (http://www.skinsite.com/info_sebaceous_hyperplasia.htm) at The Skin Site)