BIOTECH100
A Resource Guide to Investing in Biotechnology
Directory - Encyclopedia - Stock Index - Pipeline Drugs 

Biotechnology Encyclopedia

Cytokines

 

Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between immune system cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. They are actively secreted by immune cells as well as other cell types. Cytokines that are produced by immune cells form a subset known as lymphokines. Their action is often local, but sometimes can have global effects on the whole body. The first lymphokines were identified in the mid-1960's, with the best known being migration inhibition factor (MIF), simultaneously discovered by John David and Barry Bloom. The first cytokines were identified in cultures of kidney cells, by Stanley Cohen and his colleagues, in 1974.

There are a lot of known cytokines that have both stimulating and suppressing action on lymphocyte cells and immune response. Some of the better known cytokines include: histamine, prostaglandin, TNF-±, IL-1, and IL-6. There are three classes of cytokines.

Cytokines act by binding to their cell-specific receptors. These receptors are located in the cell membrane and each allows a distinct signal cascade to start in the cell, that eventually will lead to biochemical and phenotypical changes in the target cell. Typically, receptors for cytokines are also tyrosine kinases.

Some studies have shown links between cytokine levels and clinical depression [1] (http://www.mcmaster.ca/inabis98/anisman/yirmiya0194/two.html).

 

 
Biotech100 Index
What are the Requirements to be listed in the Biotech100 Index?
 Biotech100 list of companies
Pipeline drugs for the Biotech100


Clinical Trials
What is a Clinical Trial?
Phase I ,-- Phase II, -- PhaseIII
What is Randomized Control?
 What is a Double Blind Experiment?
What is the role of the FDA?


Investing in Stocks
Small Cap Stocks
Stocks and Bonds
Biotech100 Index


Sponsored Links


Careers and Employment
Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical
What are the Fastest Growing Careers?

Key Biotech Terms


Google
 
Web www.biotech100.com
SEARCH THE BIOTECH100 WEBSITE
  
     

 
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (see Copyrights for details). Disclaimers. Wikipedia is powered by MediaWiki, an open source wiki engine..
 


Copyright 2005 BIOTECH100.COM. All rights reserved.

email: info@biotech100.com