BIOTECH100
A Resource Guide to Investing in Biotechnology
Directory - Encyclopedia - Stock Index - Pipeline Drugs 

Biotechnology Encyclopedia

Clostridium


Clostridium is a genus of Gram positive anaerobic spore-forming bacteria.

There are many species of Clostridium but the four main species causing human disease are:

 

Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming, anaerobic bacillus which produces a toxin that causes botulism. C. botulinum was first recognized and isolated in 1896 by Van Ermengem and is commonly found in soil.

These rod-shaped organisms grow best in low oxygen conditions. The bacteria form spores which allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth.

Subtypes

Each of the seven subtypes of C. botulinum produce seven different botulinum toxins (one per subtype). These are labeled with letters and are called A-G types (types C and D are not human pathogens). A "mouse protection" test determines the type of C. botulinum present (monoclonal antibodies used). In the United States, outbreaks are primarily due to types A, B (which are found in soil) or E (which is found in fish).

Optimum temperature for types A & B is 35-40 C. Minimum pH is 4.6. It takes 25 min at 100C to kill these types. Optimum temperature for type E is 18-25C. Minimum pH is 5.0. It takes about 0.1 minute at 100C to kill type E C. botulinum.

Clostridium botulinum is also used to prepare Botox, used to selectively paralyze muscles to temporarily relieve wrinkles. It has other "off-label" medical purposes, such as treating headaches.


External links

Botox Info (http://www.1-botox.com)

 
Biotech100 Index
What are the Requirements to be listed in the Biotech100 Index?
 Biotech100 list of companies
Pipeline drugs for the Biotech100


Clinical Trials
What is a Clinical Trial?
Phase I ,-- Phase II, -- PhaseIII
What is Randomized Control?
 What is a Double Blind Experiment?
What is the role of the FDA?


Investing in Stocks
Small Cap Stocks
Stocks and Bonds
Biotech100 Index


Sponsored Links


Careers and Employment
Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical
What are the Fastest Growing Careers?

Key Biotech Terms


Google
 
Web www.biotech100.com
SEARCH THE BIOTECH100 WEBSITE
  
     

 
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (see Copyrights for details). Disclaimers. Wikipedia is powered by MediaWiki, an open source wiki engine..
 


Copyright 2005 BIOTECH100.COM. All rights reserved.

email: info@biotech100.com